Tuesday, February 22, 2011


NANDA-I (North American Nursing Diagnoses Association International)
The NANDA International Classification is used for the identification of nursing diagnoses. The classification is recognized as a well established diagnosis terminology which is included in UMLS and recognized by ANA. The NANDA Nursing Diagnoses: Definition & Classification 2009-2011 includes 21 new diagnoses, 9 revised diagnoses, 6 retired diagnoses, and has a total of 202 nursing diagnoses for use in practice. Each diagnosis has a definition and the actual diagnoses include defining characteristics and related factors. Risk diagnoses include risk factors (NANDA-I, 2009). In this study, NANDA-I diagnoses are based on 155 nursing diagnoses including related factors and signs/symptoms (NANDA-I, 1999) used in the study hospital.

The current 4th edition Nursing Outcomes Classification has 385 outcomes with definitions, indicators, and measurement scales (1 to 5) for use at the individual, family, and community levels. It includes 58 new outcome labels and 67 revised outcomes (Moorhead et al., 2008). NOC allows nurses to follow changes in or maintenance of outcome states over time and across settings. Before providing an intervention, nurses use NOC to understand the patient’s current problems and nursing diagnoses and rate the chosen outcome to obtain a baseline rating. After providing an intervention, NOC is used to measure the outcome and determine a change score. In this study, NOC outcomes are defined as the second edition of NOC with 260 outcomes labels (Johnson, Maas, & Moorhead, 2000) as the available terminology in the study hospital

The NIC taxonomy has 7 domains and 30 classes and 542 interventions in the fifth edition. It currently contains 34 new interventions and 77 revised interventions (Bulechek et al., 2008). Each intervention has a list of more specific activities for implementing the intervention that are selected based on the patients needs. In the study, NIC interventions from the third edition with 468 interventions were used in the study hospital as part of the nursing care planning (Dochterman & Bulechek, 2000)

NNN linkages provide associations between three standardized languages recognized by the American Nurses Organization: NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC. The first step in the process to link NNN is for nurses to determine a nursing diagnosis using NANDA-I diagnoses. The diagnoses that occur most frequently reflect their importance in representing an entire group of patients. After determining the nursing diagnosis, nurses consider which NOC outcomes are appropriate for the patient situation, and then choose NIC interventions that are most likely to achieve the desired outcome (Johnson, 2006).


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